The construction of collective memory in public spaces through the sense of place
Through a several paradigm shifts in architecture and urban design at the 20th century, it could be seen that there are abundant concerns. The rapid changes in urban life have also altered the spaces in cities which required great adaptation despite of its lackness of the ability. Within the increasing awareness of limited resources and capacity of the world, the new challenges for urban spaces become not only to create environmentally and economically sustainable cities, but also to supply the fundamentals for social sustainability. As the concerns of social sustainability rest beyond the individual quality of life, it covers the collective functioning of the society. It emphasizes the ability to provide sufficient conditions in order to maintain the human interaction and cultural development in long term. The great transformation in urban spaces has resulted in questioning the dynamics and the relationship between the past, now and the future. As a result, the concepts such as identity, attachment and memory got great attention in the fields of research. As the memory is presumed as created collectively, the way of the evaluation for relation between the individuals and built environment should be widened through a new perspective. Respectively, public spaces are the reference points for both interactions of individuals and relationship between past, today and future. Public space does not only nurture the daily and social life, but also it creates collective memory for the societies within its several attributes. As the combination between the past and the future exists in the idea of place, public places are multi-functional areas which have the ability to bind the community through sense of place. Public place creates a convenient and meaningful sense of place in which activities and memories collectively shared by the society. If a space does not have the essence of the sense of place which could be also interpreted as genius loci, it is not possible to build a memory collectively for its inhabitants. So, genius loci becomes an essential part in the construction of memory. In this respect, the study focuses on the public spaces within the framework sense of place as an essential part in the structure of memory. The sense of place is believed a significant component in the creation of memory to achieve social sustainability through public spaces. The study reviews the literature of social sustainability and emphasizes public spaces to discover the relationship between sense of place and the memory. The study will focus on Turkey in which cultural and social characteristics have great differences from European and American societies. The study also aims to discover the affects of cultural and social differences on the concept of sense of place and public space in Turkey which would influence the construction of collective memory.